Techniques

Tiling with sand and cement

  1. Mix 4 parts of sand and 1 part of the cement, using reduced quantities of water, up to get a solid and dry bottom with the best adherence and stability;
  2. Spread and level the obtained mixture so as to create a foundation of 5/7 centimetres; go on with the covering of limited surfaces at a time, in order to avoid that, because of changes in environment conditions, the foundation loses its softness, making very difficult the realization of following operations of beating and levelling of tiles;
  3. Cover uniformly with dust the foundation that has been obtained with abundant cement;
  4. If the surface's degree of humidity is not enough to create, together with the cement dust, a superficial layer with the same consistence as the grease, it will be necessary to moisten with very little water and to spread the misture with a fittine spatola with tooth of 10-15 millimetres;
  5. Put down the tiles one after the other without adding water, and, if it necessary, with a distance of 1 mm. using little crosses for floors;
    NOTE: during the tiling, control tiles'colouring, wetting them one by one, because the marble powders'mixture and shattering and the raw materials'variability can create different tonalities in the floor;
  6. The water and cement grout for the sealing of leaks must be applied 5/6 days after the laying of tiles, in order that the foundation dries up. During this period, it is absolutely necessary to keep the floor clean, in order to avoid that dust's possible residues close the joints among the tiles, preventing the cement grout from adhering completely.(Preserve some kilograms of cement grout for a possible reuse);
  7. After one month, it is possible to carry out the first polishing of the floor, that makes more evident the whole surface and that allows to individuated possible defective tiles wich can be substituted after their removal with a "flexible"(a particular tool used to cut the stone, iron into pieces). For the new plastering, use the cement grout that has been previously preserved;
  8. Finish the polishing, repeating it again, up to get a polished, bright and uniform surface.

Tiling with glue

The tiling with glue is particularly suitable for the tiles in "Pastina".

  1. Clean the surface eliminating dust,greases, incrustations, etc.;make it compact and , if it is particularly absorbent, moisten it with latex, that has been diluted in parts 1/3 with water;
  2. In a clean container mix a part of latex with two parts of cement and two parts of clean sand,with a grain non-superior to 0,5 mm., up to get a homogeneous mixture.Such a mixture can be used for about 3/4 hours, according to the environment conditions;
  3. Spread the mixture, that has been obtained with the latex, on the surface to floor with a fitting toothed spatula. It is important to spread sufficient quantity of mixture for a good adherence of the tile (about 15 mm. in thickness for the size 40x40; 10 mm. in thickness for the size 20x20 and 25x25);
  4. After spreading the glue on little surfaces, apply the tiles, paying attention to the beating that must be uniform;
  5. The water and grout for the sealing of leaks must be applied 2/3 days after the tiling. The excess must be removed immediately with wet cloths or with damp sawdust. But only during the polishing's process the excess must not be removed.


PARTICULAR CASES


  • If the foundation is very absorbing and not sufficiently raw, brush it with a grout of cement and latex, before spreading the foudation.
  • In case of tiling on the outside in particular environment conditions (exposure to the sun with high temperatures), after the beating, spread abundantely wet cloths or sacks on the whole surface, at least for 24 hours.

 

Smoothing and polishing

Such processes take place 20/30 days after the plastering, according to the year's different periods.
As regards the smoothing/polishing of the marble and of the floor in cement, there are 7 stages, during which the worker uses suitable floor-sanders whose refining action is carried out by proper abrasive grindstones that operate when there is the water. The abrasive grindstones, that are used during the smoothing, have a grain of: 60-200-300-400-600-800. This kind of classification indicates the right proportion of the abrasive that is contained in the grindstone's mixture (the number 60 indicates 1/60 of mm.).
After the smoothing, the floor's polishing begins. It is a carried out through a feltwasher that is placed under the floor-sander, and through the use of polishing natural stones.
This operation happens thanks to the action of the stone which is placed under the felt.
The stones turn on the floor's surface, and the heat, that is produced by the friction, leads to the detaching of solid residues from the stones, that close the floor's pores.
The greatest difficulties of a right smoothing are due to the abrasive action of the grindstone, that must be homogeneous on the whole surface so that the floor's plane is uniform as much as possible.
The polisher must be very carefull during the floor's polishing, because a good polishing reduces the material's porosity, considerably.
In the smoothing and polishing it is necessary to use a great deal of water, in order to avoid some risks, such as:

  • Absorption of pulp from the floor;
  • Breakage of tiles.


When the polishing finishes, in order to avoid the formation of whitish veiling on the floor, it is necessary to wash twice or three times a day with water and neutral detergent, until the floor reaches its hardness and colours'vivacity.

Cleaning crystallization and waxing

The work of cleaning, crystallization and waxing takes place 20/30 days after the happened assembly of the floor, and it develops in 3 moments:

  1. cleaning of the floor with little diamond sponges of different kind 200-400-600, and let dry for 24 hours;
  2. go on with the crystallization;
  3. finally, go on with the waxing by means of proper waxes for the maintenance.